Most bacterial viruses (phages) cause lysis of their host cell to release the progeny virions. Large phages elaborate an enzyme (\"endolysin\") to degrade the cell wall and also a small membrane protein (\"holin\"). The holin accumulates in the membrane and then, at a precisely scheduled time, suddenly forms a hole to allow release of endolysin through the cytoplasmic membrane to gain access to the wall. We use molecular genetics and biochemistry to study how this small protein is able to act as a molecular \"clock\" and punch holes in membranes. Small phages make single proteins which cause host lysis in a different way. This strategy is to target the host cell wall synthesis machinery; that is, the virus makes a \"protein antibiotic\" that causes lysis in the same way as antibiotics like penicillin by inhibiting an enzyme in the multi-step pathway of murein biosynthesis. Thus, when the infected cell tries to divide, it blows up, or lyses, because it can't make the new cell wall between the daughter cells. Remarkably, each of three different, small phages blocks a different step in the pathway. These small lysis proteins are models for a completely new class of antibacterial antibiotics. Also, the E. coli SlyD protein is required for this mode of lysis in one case. SlyD is a member of an ubiquitous family of proteins related to human \"immunophilins,\" the targets of immune-suppression drugs. We study SlyD to learn about the role of this class of proteins in biology.
- Chamakura, K., & Young, R. y. (2019). Phage single-gene lysis: Finding the weak spot in the bacterial cell wall. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY. 294(10), 3350-3358.
- Marc, A., Cater, K., Kongari, R., Hatoum-Aslan, A., Young, R. F., & Liu, M. (2019). Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Siphophage Lorac. Microbiology Resource Announcements. 8(27),
- Freeman, M. E., Kenny, S. E., Lanier, A., Cater, K., Wilhite, M. C., Gamble, P., ... Liu, M. (2019). Complete genome sequences of staphylococcus epidermidis myophages quidividi, terranova, and twillingate. Microbiology Resource Announcements. 8(26),
- Cahill, J., & Young, R. y. (2019). Phage Lysis: Multiple Genes for Multiple Barriers. Adv Virus Res. 103, 33-70.
- Schooley, R. T., Biswas, B., Gill, J. J., Hernandez-Morales, A., Lancaster, J., Lessor, L., ... Hamilton, T. (2018). Development and Use of Personalized Bacteriophage-Based Therapeutic Cocktails To Treat a Patient with a Disseminated Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Infection (vol 61, e00954-17, 2017). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 62(12),
- Stansfield, T., Troxler, M., Young, R., Russell, D., & Scott, J. (2016). Major Trauma Centres: are Vascular Surgeons missing a training opportunity?. British Journal of Surgery. 103, 25-25.
- Das, M., Bhowmick, T. S., Ahern, S. J., Young, R. F., & Gonzalez, C. (2013). Therapeutic and prophylactic application of phages to control Pierce's disease. PHYTOPATHOLOGY. 103(6), 34-34.
- Summer, E. J., Liu, M., Summer, N. S., Gill, J. J., Janes, C., & Young, R. (2011). Phage of sulfate reducing bacteria isolated from high saline environment. NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series.
- Duarte, I., Wang, G., Gill, J. J., Young, R. F., LiPuma, J. J., & Gonzalez, C. F. (2010). A broad host range tailocin from Burkholderia. PHYTOPATHOLOGY. 100(6), S31-S31.
- Duarte, I., Wang, G., Young, R. F., LiPuma, J., & Gonzalez, C. F. (2009). Characterization of a tailocin from Burkholderia. PHYTOPATHOLOGY. 99(6), S30-S30.
- Kongari, Ramchander Rohit (2018-08). The Role of Spanins in Outer Membrane Disruption. (Doctoral Dissertation)
- Sperber, Anthony Michael (2017-12). Characterization of YisK, a Cell Shape Modifier and Enzyme in Bacillus subtilis. (Doctoral Dissertation)
- Cahill, Jesse L (2017-12). Molecular, Genetic, and Biochemical Analysis of Phage Lambda Lysis. (Doctoral Dissertation)
- Chamakura, Karthik Reddy (2017-05). Evolved to Break Free: Evolution and Diversity in Single Gene Lysis. (Doctoral Dissertation)
- Chen, Yi (2016-08). Regulation of Phage Lysis: Diverse Strategies and Targets. (Doctoral Dissertation)