The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a nuclear helix-loop-helix transcription factor which forms a ligand-induced nuclear heterodimer with the AhR nuclear translocator (Arnt) protein. Research in this laboratory is focused on the molecular mechanism of crosstalk between the AhR and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling pathways in which the AhR inhibits estrogen-induced gene expression. The antiestrogenic activities of some AhR agonists are also being developed as drugs for clinical treatment of breast and endometrial cancers in women. Research on estrogen-dependent gene expression in various cancer cell lines is focused on analysis of several gene promoters to determine the mechanisms of ERa and ERb action. This includes several genes that are activated through interactions of the ER with Sp1 protein and other DNA-bound transcription factors.

selected publications
Academic Articles947
  • Safe, S., Jin, U. H., & Li, X. (2018). Chemical-Induced Estrogenicity. Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles: Third Edition. (pp. 805-816). Elsevier.
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  • Safe, S., Lee, S., Meng, C., & Zhou, B. (2015). NR4A Orphan Receptors as Drug Targets. Targeted Therapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia. (pp. 509-528). Springer New York.
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  • Safe, S. (2013). RNA Interference. Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics. (pp. 288-289). Elsevier.
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  • Safe, S. H., Khan, S., Wu, F., Li, X., & Sreevalsan, S. (2012). Chemical-induced estrogenicity. Veterinary Toxicology. (pp. 999-1011). Elsevier.
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  • Safe, S., Chadalapaka, G., & Jutooru, I. (2011). AHR‐Active Compounds in the Human Diet. The AH Receptor in Biology and Toxicology. (pp. 331-342). John Wiley & Sons, Inc..
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Conference Papers36
chaired theses and dissertations
First Name
Last Name
mailing address
Texas A&M University; Vet Med - Physiology & Pharmacology; 4466 TAMU
College Station, TX 77843-4466