My long-term goals are two-fold: 1) to understand the molecular mechanism of prenatal CrVI exposure on placental and fetal development, ovarian and uterine function, and pregnancy outcome, and; 2) to understand the protective effects of various natural and synthetic antioxidants (such as edaravone, glutathione, vitamin C and resveratrol) against the deleterious effects of heavy-metals, CrVI in particular. Current research in my lab is focused on the study of reproductive and developmental toxicity of CrVI. Drinking water contamination with CrVI in the United States is a growing problem due to increased usage of CrVI and improper disposal of Cr waste into the environment. Significant contamination with CrVI has been found in the drinking water sources of all the states in the U.S. Effects of Cr on reproductive health in women and development in children have received less attention. Epidemiological data document that women exposed to Cr in environmental or occupational settings suffer from infertility, gynecological problems, congenital malformation of fetuses, neonatal mortality, and premature abortions with increased levels of Cr in their blood, urine and placenta. Cr can bind directly to DNA and nuclear proteins, cause DNA strand breaks and mutations, alter the balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, and activate several cell signaling pathways. Therefore, my current research objective is to determine molecular pathways and identify target genes/proteins by which Cr alters prenatal development and organogenesis of female reproductive system in the offspring.

education and training
selected publications
Academic Articles56
  • Stanley, J. A., Arosh, J. A., Hoyer, P. B., & Banu, S. K. (2019). Ex Vivo Fetal Whole Ovarian Culture Model: An Essential Tool for Studies in Reproductive Toxicology and Pharmacology.. Methods Mol Biol. 1965, 107-127.
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  • Banu, S. K. (2018). Chromium Burden in Human Placenta: Author(s) Responses to Thompson et al.. Toxicol Sci. 165(2), 270-271.
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  • Banu, S. K., Stanley, J. A., Taylor, R. J., Sivakumar, K. K., Arosh, J. A., Zeng, L., Pennathur, S., & Padmanabhan, V. (2018). Sexually Dimorphic Impact of Chromium Accumulation on Human Placental Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis.. Toxicol Sci. 161(2), 375-387.
  • Arosh, J. A., & Banu, S. K. (2018). Molecular, Cellular, and Epigenetic Signatures of Prostaglandin E2 in Endometriosis. Current Women s Health Reviews. 14(2), 127-146.
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  • Stanley, J. A., Stanley, J. A., Neelamohan, R., Suthagar, E., Annapoorna, K., Sharmila, S., ... Aruldhas, M. M. (2014). Androgen Receptor Expression in Human Thyroid Cancer Tissues: A Potential Mechanism Underlying the Gender Bias in the Incidence of Thyroid Cancers. R. Sudhakaran, P. (Eds.), Perspectives in Cancer Prevention-Translational Cancer Research. 121-132. Springer India.
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  • Hoyer, P., & Banu, S. (2013). Phthalates. Ovarian Toxicology. 193-206. CRC Press.
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  • Banu, S. K. (2013). Ovarian Toxicology. Hoyer, P. B. (Eds.), Ovarian Toxicology, Second Edition. 191-228. CRC Press.
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Conference Papers31
  • Banu, S. K., Stanley, J. A., Sivakumar, K. K., & Arosh, J. A. (2017). Exposure to CrVI During Early Pregnancy Increases Oxidative Stress and Disrupts the Expression of Antioxidant Proteins in Placental Compartments.. REPRODUCTIVE SCIENCES. 24, 213A-213A.
  • Arosh, J. A., Lee, J., Bruner-Tran, K. L., Osteen, K. G., & Banu, S. K. (2017). Prostaglandin E2 Signaling, Estrogen-Dominance and Progesterone-Resistance in Endometriosis.. REPRODUCTIVE SCIENCES. 24, 59A-59A.
  • Arosh, J. A., Lee, J., Meagher, M., Osteen, K., Bruner-Tran, K., & Banu, S. (2013). Unraveling the moleculr interactions between PGE2 signaling and pain pathways in endometriosis. Fertility and Sterility. 100(3), S103-S103.
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  • Banu, S. K., Lee, J., Burghardt, R. C., & Arosh, J. A. (2012). Combined Inhibition of ERK1/2 and AKT Pathways Induces Apoptosis of Human Endometriotic Epithelial and Stromal Cells through Intrinsic Apoptotic Mechanisms. REPRODUCTIVE SCIENCES. 19(S3), 138A-138A.
  • Stanley, J. A., Lee, J., Arosh, J. A., Hoyer, P. B., Burghardt, R. C., & Banu, S. K. (2011). Hexavalent Chromium Through Lactational Exposure Delayed Follicular Development in Pre-Pubertal F1 Offspring: Mechanistic Insights into Cell Cycle Regulation of Granulosa Cells.. Biology of Reproduction. 85(Suppl_1), 297-297.
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chaired theses and dissertations
First Name
Last Name
mailing address
Texas A&M University; Veterinary Integrative Biosciences; 4458 TAMU
College Station, TX 77843-4458