© 2018, Pleiades Publishing, Inc. Here we present the results of lithological and microfossil (Ostracoda and Foraminifera) analyses and reconstruct the transgressive–regressive changes on the Northern Caspian Sea shelf during the Holocene. Modern and Novocaspian faunas consist of abundant Ostracoda (Cyprideis torosa) and Foraminifera (Ammonia beccarii), which are characteristic of dynamic shallow water conditions. Novocaspian sediments in core profiles GS 194-08-01 and GS 194-08-14 obtained at water depths of 7.5 and 10.3 m, respectively, were deposited in shallower and fresher water environments compared to modern ones. We distinguished Mangyshlak, Novocaspian, and modern sediments in the studied cores from the Northern Caspian shelf. The age of the boundary between Mangyshlak and Novocaspian sediments in the study area correspond to approximately 10550 years BP.