1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-biphenyl) methane inhibits basal-like breast cancer growth in athymic nude mice | Academic Article individual record

INTRODUCTION: 1,1-Bis (3'-indolyl)-1-(p-biphenyl) methane (CDIM9) has been identified as a new peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonist that exhibits both receptor dependent and independent antitumor activities. CDIM9 has not previously been studied with respect to its effects against basal-like breast cancer. Our goal in the present study was to investigate the anti-basal-like breast tumor activity of CDIM9 in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The effects of CDIM9 on cell protein and DNA syntheses were determined in basal-like breast cancer MDA-MB231 and BT549 cells in vitro. Maximum tolerated dose and dose-limited toxicity were determined in BalB/c mice, and antitumor growth activities were assessed in MDA-MB231 basal-like breast tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice. RESULTS: CDIM9 exhibited selective cell cytotoxicity and anti-proliferation effects on basal-like breast cancer lines. In MDA-MB231 cell, CDIM9 induced caveolin-1 and p27 expression, which was significantly downregulated by co-treatment with the PPAR-gamma antagonist GW9662. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 and activating transcription factor-3 were upregulated by CDIM9 through a PPAR-gamma independent pathway. CDIM9 (40 mg/kg daily, intraperitoneally, for 35 days) inhibited the growth of subcutaneous MDA-MB231 tumor xenografts by 87%, and produced a corresponding decrease in proliferation index. Nearly half of the treated mice (46%) had complete durable remissions, confirmed by histology. The growth of an established tumor was inhibited by CDIM9 treatment (64 mg/kg daily, intraperitoneally, for 10 days), with a mean tumor growth inhibition of 67% as compared with controls. CDIM9 induced increases in tumor caveolin-1 and p27 in vivo, which may contribute to its antitumor activity in basal-like breast cancer. CONCLUSION: CDIM9 showed potent antiproliferative effects on basal-like breast cancer cell in tissue culture and dramatic growth inhibition in animal models at safe doses. These findings justify further development of this drug for treatment of basal-like breast cancer.

author list (cited authors)
Su, Y., Vanderlaag, K., Ireland, C., Ortiz, J., Grage, H., Safe, S., & Frankel, A. E.
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  • Immunoblotting
  • Survival Rate
  • Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Myoblasts
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor P27
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Mice, Nude
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor P21
  • Mice
  • PPAR Gamma
  • Female
  • In Situ Nick-End Labeling
  • Humans
  • Indoles
  • Animals
  • Muscle, Skeletal
  • Caveolin 1