Manufactured gas plant residue (MGP) is a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that is tumorigenic in the lungs of mice. This study compared the relative genotoxicity of 7H-benzo[c]fluorene (BC), a PAH component of MGP, with MGP and MGP fractions in order to assess the contribution of BC to the genotoxicity of MGP. An MGP sample was separated into seven fractions (F1-F7) using silica gel column chromatography with petroleum ether (PE) followed by PE:acetone (99:1 v/v, then 98:2). PAHs were quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. An aliquot of F2, the fraction with the highest BC concentration and highest weighted mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98, was further separated using silica gel thin-layer chromatography with hexane. The first F2 subfraction, sF2-a, was enriched in BC and coeluting compounds and contained 35,000 ppm BC and 216,109 ppm carcinogenic PAHs (cPAHs, the sum of seven PAHs categorized by the U.S. EPA as class B2 carcinogens). The second F2 subfraction, sF2-b, contained a ninefold lower concentration of BC, with 3,900 ppm BC and 45,216 ppm cPAHs. Female ICR mice received topical application of crude MGP, crude MGP spiked with analytical-grade BC, F2, sF2-a, sF2-b, or analytical-grade BC. DNA adduct levels were analyzed by nuclease P1-enhanced (32)P-postlabeling. In lung DNA of mice receiving 0.48 or 3.0 mg/mouse, net total RAL x 10(9) values were F2, 30.8 and 87.2; sF2-a, 24.8 and 106.7; and sF2-b, 19.6 and 151.0, respectively. Mice dosed with 0.10 mg analytical-grade BC (the mass of BC in 3.0 mg sF2-a) exhibited a net total RAL x 10(9) value of 7.03 in lung DNA. This was equal to approximately 7% of the total RAL x 10(9) value produced by 3.0 mg sF2-a. Thus, although BC appears to make an appreciable contribution to pulmonary adduct formation, the results suggest that MGP components other than BC play an important role in lung DNA adduct formation following topical MGP administration.
- Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, AromaticAnimalsCarcinogensDNA AdductsDNA DamageFemaleFluorenesIn Vitro TechniquesMiceMice, Inbred ICRMicrosomes, LiverMutagenicity TestsPolycyclic Aromatic HydrocarbonsRatsRats, Sprague-DawleySalmonella TyphimuriumBenzo[c]fluoreneManufactured Gas Plant ResidueCoal TarDNA AdductChemical MixturePolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon