Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been recognized as one of the biggest public health issues of the 21st century. Both ARB and ARGs have been determined in water after treatment with conventional disinfectants. Ultraviolet (UV) technology has been seen growth in application to disinfect the water. However, UV method alone is not adequate to degrade ARGs in water. Researchers are investigating the combination of UV with other oxidants (chlorine, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxymonosulfate (PMS), and photocatalysts) to harness the high reactivity of produced reactive species (Cl·, ClO·, Cl2·-, ·OH, and SO4·-) in such processes with constituents of cell (e.g., deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and its components) in order to increase the degradation efficiency of ARGs. This paper briefly reviews the current status of different UV-based treatments (UV/chlorination, UV/H2O2, UV/PMS, and UV-photocatalysis) to degrade ARGs and to control horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in water. The review also provides discussion on the mechanism of degradation of ARGs and application of q-PCR and gel electrophoresis to obtain insights of the fate of ARGs during UV-based treatment processes.
- Sulfate Radicals
- Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria
- Advanced Oxidation Processes
- Reactive Chlorine Species
- Reactive Oxygen Species