© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014. There have been tremendous changes in global land use pattern in the past 50 years, which has directly or indirectly exerted significant influence on global climate changes. Quantitative analysis for the impacts of land use and cover change (LUCC) on surface climate is one of the core scientific issues to quantitatively analyze impacts of LUCC on surface climate so as to scientifically understand the influence of human activities on climate changes. This chapter comprehensively analyzes the primary scientific issues about the impacts of LUCC on surface climate and reviews the progress in relevant researches. Firstly, it introduces the influence mechanism of LUCC on regional surface climate, and reviews the progress in researches on biogeophysical process and biogeochemical process. Then the model simulation of effects of LUCC on surface climate are introduced, and the development from global climate model to regional climate model and the integration of improved land surface model and regional climate model are reviewed in detail. Finally, this chapter discusses the application of regional climate models in development and management of agricultural land and urban land.