A solid state-based method using a hot reaction chamber is applied to the synthesis of Y2O3:Eu particles containing Eu from 0 to 5mol%. The produced powders are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as photoluminescence (PL) and radioluminescence tests. TEM and XRD results revealed the powder to be mono-disperse and in the form of a solid solution. The PL of Y2O3:Eu powder depends on both the concentration quenching effect (due to an excess of Eu concentration) and the surface luminescence effect (depicted by a higher surface area induced by the large phosphor concentration in the solution or smaller particle sizes). A 22Na gamma source is used to compare the recorded count rates for four Y2O3:Eu scintillator materials with different concentrations of Eu. Each scintillator composition is examined in four forms: solid pellets with a high volume porosity and three aqueous solutions of Y2O3:Eu particles of the different scintillator materials at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100mg/mL. The radioluminescence results indicated that increasing the transparency and/or the amount of Eu mol% of the scintillators increases the net average counts. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.