© 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland (outside the USA). A new Arctic Ostracode Database-2015 (AOD-2015) provides census data for 96 species of benthic marine Ostracoda from 1340 modern surface sediments from the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas. Ostracoda is a meiofaunal, Crustacea group that secretes a bivalved calcareous (CaCO3) shell commonly preserved in sediments. Arctic and subarctic ostracode species have ecological limits controlled by temperature, salinity, oxygen, sea ice, food, and other habitat-related factors. Unique species ecology, shell chemistry (Mg/Ca ratios, stable isotopes), and limited stratigraphic ranges make them a useful tool for paleoceanographic reconstructions and biostratigraphy. The database, described here, will facilitate the investigation of modern ostracode biogeography, regional community structure, and ecology. These data, when compared to downcore faunal data from sediment cores, will provide a better understanding of how the Arctic has been affected by climatic and oceanographic change during the Quaternary. Images of all species and biogeographic distribution maps for selected species are presented, with brief discussion of representative species’ biogeographic and ecological significance. Publication of AOD-2015 is open-sourced and will be available online at several public websites with latitude, longitude, water depth, and bottom water temperature for most samples. It includes material from Arctic abyssal plains and submarine ridges, continental slopes, and shelves of the Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, Beaufort Seas, and several subarctic regions.