OBJECTIVE To compare the humoral response between sheep vaccinated with a killed-virus (KV) vaccine and those vaccinated with a modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine against bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 17. DESIGN Randomized clinical trial followed by a field trial. ANIMALS 30 yearling crossbred ewes (phase 1) and 344 sheep from 7 Wyoming farms (phase 2). PROCEDURES In phase 1, ewes seronegative for anti-BTV antibodies received sterile diluent (control group; n = 10) or an MLV (10) or KV (10) vaccine against BTV-17 on day 0. Ewes in the KV group received a second dose of the vaccine on day 21. Ewes were bred 5 months after vaccination and allowed to lamb. Anti-BTV antibodies were measured in ewes at predetermined times after vaccination and in their lambs once at 5 to 10 days after birth. In phase 2, 248 commercial sheep were screened for anti-BTV antibodies and vaccinated with a KV vaccine against BTV-17 on day 0. Sheep seronegative for anti-BTV antibodies on day 0 (n = 90) underwent follow-up serologic testing on day 365 along with 96 unvaccinated cohorts (controls). RESULTS In phase 1, all vaccinated ewes developed anti-BTV antibodies by 14 days after vaccination and remained seropositive for 1 year; all of their lambs were also seropositive. All control ewes and lambs were seronegative. In phase 2, the prevalence of vaccinated sheep with anti-BTV antibodies 1 year after vaccination was 93% and 76% as determined by a serum neutralization assay and competitive ELISA, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Both vaccines induced antibodies against BTV-17 that persisted for at least 1 year and provided passive immunity for lambs and may be a viable option to protect sheep against disease.
- AnimalsAntibodies, ViralBluetongueBluetongue VirusFemaleImmunity, Maternally-AcquiredKineticsMaleProspective StudiesSheepVaccines, AttenuatedVaccines, InactivatedViral Vaccines