This paper focuses on the effect of thermomechanically induced heating on the response of a single member of a space truss structure that behaves viscoplastically. The governing equations are given for a typical truss member, in which material inelasticity is reflected in constitutive equations via a set of internal state variables, each characterized by a history-dependent growth law. The governing equations are coupled in the sense that temperature and displacement are dependent on each other. This difficulty, together with the fact that the inelastic constitutive equations are nonlinear and numerically stiff, requires that a computationally complex semidiscretized finite element spatial technique be utilized to obtain a solution. This procedure is utilized to predict the response of a typical metallic space truss member under vibrational or cyclic loading. Particular interest is placed on the temperature rise in such a member due to hysteretic loss during structural vibrations and in the presence of complex thermal boundary conditions. Example cases are constructed for a typical cylindrical bar of 5086 aluminum, both with and without special coatings. Results indicate that significant, possibly even catastrophic, heating can occur due to thermomechanical coupling. © American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., 1986, All rights reserved.