IDENTITY OF SENSORY AND MOTOR SYSTEMS THAT ARE CRITICAL TO IMMOBILITY REFLEX (ANIMAL HYPNOSIS) | Academic Article individual record
abstract

This review presents an analysis of the sensory and motor mechanisms as they are now understood that cause the immobility reflex (IR). Of the sensory systems that conceivably could trigger and sustain the IR, as commonly induced experimentally by inversion and manual restraint, evidence has been presented to eliminate some senses (vestibular, vision, sound, many visceral sensations, olfaction, taste, temperature), while incriminating tactile and proprioceptive influences. Of the motor systems which could cause the profound immobility during IR, neurosurgical and electrophysiological evidence identifies the locus of the inhibitory neurons in the brain stem and/or spinal cord. The evidence reviewed leads to a unified working hypothesis of IR mechanisms. IR is considered to be caused by a group of neurons in the brain stem which inhibit spinal motoneurons, either directly or indirectly, when those inhibitory neurons are activated by a specific pattern of tactile and proprioceptive input. Modulation of the IR control system appears to come from the limbic system, which under fear-producing conditions, potentiates the IR in part by release of epinephrine. Inhibition of the IR control system appears to come from the neocortex, as well as the brain stem reticulum, when it is activated by nonspecific, arousing somaesthetic sensations that produce generalized activation of the neocortex and skeletal muscle.

author list (cited authors)
KLEMM, W. R.
publication date
1976
publisher
Wiley Publisher
published in
keywords
  • Proprioception
  • Epinephrine
  • Spinal Cord
  • Motor Neurons
  • Nervous System Physiological Phenomena
  • Thalamus
  • Reflex
  • Decerebrate State
  • Touch
  • Species Specificity
  • Genotype
  • Behavior, Animal
  • Limbic System
  • Brain Stem
  • Animals
  • Rabbits
  • Vestibule, Labyrinth
  • Cerebral Cortex
  • Brain Mapping
  • Fear
citation count

37