EFFICACY AND TOXICITY OF DRUG-COMBINATIONS IN TREATMENT OF PHYSOSTIGMINE TOXICOSIS | Academic Article individual record
abstract

Atropine, in combination with 1 of 6 other drugs, was tested in mice for the ability to prevent death by an otherwise lethal dose of the cholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine. The atropine dose (4 mg/kg, i.p.) was kept constant, while the dose of the other drug in the pair was tested in 5 geometrically spaced doses, ranging down to 1/16 of the maximum dose (which caused no gross behavioral signs). Atropine alone saved 20% of the mice. The combination of atropine and benactyzine saved 100% of the mice at all 5 doses of benactyzine; similar complete protection was afforded by the combination of atropine and the largest dose of an oxime, TMB4 (15 mg/kg). Over 80% survivals were achieved with the larger doses of atropine combinations involving hexamethonium, mecamylamine, and diazepam. No enhanced protection occurred with atropine combinations with the oxime, 2-PAM. The toxicity of the effective combinations, when used in high doses without physostigmine challenge, revealed that deaths occurred over a narrow range of doses of all combinations except atropine/diazepam. An additive toxic effect of atropine was suggested with its combinations with TMB4, mecamylamine, and diazepam, whereas no additive toxicity occurred with combinations involving hexamethonium or benactyzine (i.e., the LD50 of the combinations was about the same as for hexamethonium or benzactyzine alone). The combinations with the best therapeutic safety ratio were with diazepam (no deaths at a dose 10 times that which saved 100% of mice) and benactyzine (no deaths at a more than 50-fold dose).

author list (cited authors)
KLEMM, W. R.
publication date
1983
publisher
Elsevier bv Publisher
published in
TOXICOLOGY Journal
keywords
  • Ganglionic Blockers
  • Mecamylamine
  • Cholinesterase Reactivators
  • HEXAMETHONIUM
  • Benactyzine
  • Tranquilizing Agents
  • Animals
  • Trimedoxime
  • Mice
  • Atropine
  • Hexamethonium Compounds
  • Physostigmine
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Diazepam
  • Pralidoxime Compounds
  • Male
altmetric score

3.0

citation count

10