A bull's flehmen reactions were recorded daily during 20-minute contact with 3 cows for nine months. During estrous periods (-3 to +1 days) there were 174 observations: 28.2% without flehmen, 21.2% with a single reaction, and 50.6% with repeated reactions. During nonestrous periods there were 624 observations: 49.0% without flehmen, 40.4% with a single reaction, and 10.6% with repeated reactions. Average numbers of all and repeated reactions during estrous periods were 2.11±2.30 and 1.90±2.43 respectively. Corresponding values for nonestrous periods, 0.70±0.93 and 0.29±0.93, were significantly lower (P<0.01). The results suggest that either the estrous pheromone(s) also occur(s) for a limited time or in limited amounts during nonestrus or that flehmen is not a very specific response to the estrus-related odors. In either case, the study of sexual pheromones should encompass other methods as well as flehmen observation. © 1983.