Size and bag limits are among the most common forms of regulations for recreational fisheries. In this paper, we theoretically study and compare the short- and long-term impacts of these policies on individual anglers and fish stocks. Particular attention is paid to the issue of release mortality, which can have important consequences for policy effectiveness. Theoretically, we show the conditions under which these policies will be successful in achieving biological objectives. Implications for recreation demand analysis are discussed. We also study these policies using a simulation model of various policy combinations for the Gulf of Mexico red snapper fishery. Copyright © 2003 Marine Resources Foundation.