Carbonate reservoir rocks of different pore structure have quite distinct and detectable 4D seismic signatures. Using three defined pore structure types (PST), these seismic signatures are correlated with the permeability patterns of carbonate rocks. In both the high-permeability PST3 and intermediate-permeability PST2 regions, gas injection is preferred than water injection for effective 4D seismic monitoring. In the low-permeability PST1 region where lies most of the bypassed oil, both gas and water injection options result in similar 4D seismic signal magnitude. Fluid saturation changes under in-situ reservoir conditions can be better detected by offset domain 4D seismic analysis. © 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.