Priming cross-protective bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific immunity using live-vectored mosaic antigens
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© 2017 Lokhandwala et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) plays a key role in bovine respiratory disease complex, which can lead to pneumonia, diarrhea and death of calves. Current vaccines are not very effective due, in part, to immunosuppressive traits and failure to induce broad protection. There are diverse BVDV strains and thus, current vaccines contain representative genotype 1 and 2 viruses (BVDV-1 & 2) to broaden coverage. BVDV modified live virus (MLV) vaccines are superior to killed virus vaccines, but they are susceptible to neutralization and complement-mediated destruction triggered by passively acquired antibodies, thus limiting their efficacy. We generated three novel mosaic polypeptide chimeras, designated N pro E2 123 ; NS 231 ; and NS 232 , which incorporate protective determinants that are highly conserved among BVDV-1a, 1b, and BVDV-2 genotypes. In addition, strain-specific protective antigens from disparate BVDV strains were included to broaden coverage. We confirmed that adenovirus constructs expressing these antigens were strongly recognized by monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal sera, and IFN-ã-secreting T cells generated against diverse BVDV strains. In a proof-of-concept efficacy study, the multi-antigen proto-type vaccine induced higher, but not significantly different, IFN-ã spot forming cells and T-cell proliferation compared to a commercial MLV vaccine. In regards to the humoral response, the prototype vaccine induced higher BVDV-1 specific neutralizing antibody titers, whereas the MLV vaccine induced higher BVDV-2 specific neutralizing antibody titers. Following BVDV type 2a (1373) challenge, calves immunized with the proto-type or the MLV vaccine had lower clinical scores compared to naïve controls. These results support the hypothesis that a broadly protective subunit vaccine can be generated using mosaic polypeptides that incorporate rationally selected and validated protective determinants from diverse BVDV strains. Furthermore, regarding biosafety of using a live vector in cattle, we showed that recombinant human adenovirus-5 was cleared within one week following intradermal inoculation.
author list (cited authors)
Lokhandwala, S., Fang, X., Waghela, S. D., Bray, J., Njongmeta, L. M., Herring, A., ... Mwangi, W.
editor list (cited editors)
Diarrhea Virus 1, Bovine Viral
Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral
Bovine Virus Diarrhea-mucosal Disease